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CHILD SPEECH AND VOICE DELIVERY DISORDERS
- Speech disorders
- Language disorders
- Articulation disorder
- Fluency disorder
- Voice disorder
Different Assessment & Management Procedures For Different Disorders
A communication disorder is any disorder that affects somebody’s ability to communicate. The delays and disorders can range from simple sound substitution to the inability to understand or use one’s native language.
DISORDERS OF SPEECH
- Disturbance/s in the parameters of speech
- Articulation disorders: pronunciation/ articulation errors.
- Fluency disorders: smooth flow of speech is affected
- Voice disorders: pitch, loudness, quality problems
- Errors/ mistakes in Pronunciation
- More common in school going children
- Phonological disorder: when more number of phonemes/ speech sounds are misarticulated
- The speech with misarticulation will be difficult to understand
- Errors are grouped into 4 types
CAUSES OF MISARTICULATIONS
- Structural abnormalities
- Cleft: Cleft lip &/ palate Defects in the articulatory/ resonatory systems will lead to misarticulations
- Tongue abnormalities: tongue tie, small/ large tongue
- Teeth problems: missing teeth, the improper arrangement of upper & lower teeth
- Sensory abnormalities
- Defects of the central nervous system, sense organs will lead to misarticulations
- Hearing loss
- Poor tactual sense/ loss of sensation
- Poor vision
- Repetitions Part of the word is repeated “pe..pe..pen”
- Prolongations: drags difficult words “I want to sssssleep”
- Pauses: use of phonemes or pause/ silence in a phrase/ sentence
- “I’ll have aaaa coffee”
- “I’ll have …… coffee”
- Interjections: use of unrelated words while speaking
- “well, you see, sure, okay, umm, so, God, you know”
- Commonly known as stammering
- Stuttering is a disruption in the flow of speech
- Seen in 4 % of the general population – More common in pre-school age children (<4 years)
- In children whose parents (families) stutter
- -Twins (monozygotic)
When the pitch, loudness and quality of voice differs from others of the same age, gender or cultural background, we classify it as deviant or defective.
Language disorders or language impairments are disorders that involve the processing of linguistic information. Problems that may be experienced can involve grammar (syntax and/or morphology), semantics (meaning), or other aspects of language.
American Association Mental Retardation (2002) : “Mental Retardation refers to significantly sub average, general intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills.”
4.3% of children in India ages 3 to 17 have their language disorder.
- Anyone can acquire aphasia(a loss of ability to use or understand language).
- Nearly 450000 acquire this disorder each year.
- About 1.5 million people in India currently have Aphasia.
IDEA (THE INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT)
- Officially defines speech and language impairments as
“A COMMUNCATION DISORDER SUCH AS STUTTERING, IMPAIRED ARTICULATION, A LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT OR A VOICE IMPAIRMENT THAT ADVERSELY AFFECTS A CHILD’S EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE”
- Speech and language impairments tend to emerge at a young age, and the earlier a child is diagnosed and receives services accordingly, the more likely the child can out grow the disability.
- Communication is at the core of education, these impairments can impact a students entire educational experience.
- Early intervention is a helpful tool for children with speech and language impairments and working with a speech language pathologists during the pre school years can be a game changer.
- Speech and language impairments require long term attention, generally remain manageable.
- Language is a basis of communication, reading, writing, gesturing, listening and speaking are all forms of language learning.
- It takes place through the process of communication.
- The ability to communicate in the educational setting is essential for a student to succeed in school.
DISABLED POPULATION IN INDIA
As per the latest Census, In India out of the 121 Cr population, 2.68 Cr persons are ‘disabled’ which is 2.21% of the total population.
Majority (69%) of the disabled population resided in rural areas (1.86 Cr disabled persons in rural areas and 0.81 Cr in urban areas).
TYPES OF DISABILITY
In India, 20% of the disabled persons are having disability in movement, 19% are with disability in seeing, and another 19 % are with disability in hearing. 8% has multiple disabilities.